Materials and Methods 2. Abstract Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 is considered as the ideal absorption layer material in next generation thin film solar cells due to the abundant component elements in the crust being nontoxic and environmentally friendly. Due to the high energy density of the laser and the effect of enhanced crystallization, we obtained uniform, single, and dense crystal grains [ 87 ]. Although the conversion efficiency was only 0. The merits of thin film preparation by electrodeposition are deposition process with low temperature, no residual thermal stress between coating and substrate, and well interface bonding; the uniform thin film can be prepared on various surfaces in complex shapes and porous surface; coating thickness, chemical composition, structure and porosity can be precisely controlled, and simple equipment and low investment are other merits. Schorr had proved that Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 was of the kesterite structure by neutron scattering and Rietveld analysis [ 19 ].
It can be seen that stannite evolves from oriented CuAu and kesterite from oriented Chalcopyrite [ 14 ]. But vacuum lines were still unable to avoid expensive equipment. Although the conversion efficiency was only 0. People have made a lot of researches on the lattice constants of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 by X-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. The effect of working pressure, target power, and annealing conditions were also studied. Therefore, deposition of the CZTS thin film solar cells directly by electrochemical method under the normal temperature is a promising material preparation technique [ 96 ].
Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 is considered as the ideal absorption layer material in next generation thin film solar cells due to the abundant component elements in the crust being nontoxic and environmentally friendly. The effect of working pressure, target power, and annealing conditions were also studied. Electrochemical deposition is a coating method czts-basde reduce the cations in the aqueous solution, organic solution, or hot-dip fluid in the cathode by supplying potential difference with external circuit power.
Survey of development of CZTS-based thin film solar cells
Currently, the main thin film solar cells include the amorphous silicon thin film, cadmium telluride CdTecopper indium selenium CIScopper indium gallium selenium CIGSthe gallium arsenide, and the copper zinc tin sulfur Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 is hereafter referred to as CZTSand, so forth, the gallium arsenide and cadmium telluride contain kf elements cadmium and arsenic and copper indium gallium selenide system contains rare indium elements; thus, these two types of solar cells cannot meet the future development of solar cells.
In addition to above problems, the certain drugs used are highly toxic, explosive, and flammable chemicals and require a harsh environment for transport and storage, which increases the cost of industrial production.
The addition of elements has increased the degrees of freedom of chemical composition and structure. The researches for quaternary semiconductor are more complex cells to the unary, binary simple semiconductors.
Compared with other methods, this process is simple and it can deposit the film with ideal stoichiometric ratio through controlling the composition of ceramic target and the oxygen pressure, especially suitable for depositing the metal oxide thin films and flim heteroepitaxial films. Physical deposition methods require a vacuum device, which makes the system more complex and production costs higher.
This low efficiency of the device was due to the celos contact resistance, which was not reported by the authors.
International Journal of Photoenergy
There are still some differences between stannite and kesterite, but there is no unified conclusion till today. InIBM obtained a conversion efficiency of 9. View at Scopus T. Compared with the currently commercialized crystalline silicon CdTe CIGS, due to its abundant component thib in the earth crust, nontoxic and environmentally friendly CZTS thin film solar cells are one of the best candidate materials for solar absorbing layer [ 1 — 3 ], which is expected to become the ideal absorption layer material of next generation oc film solar cells.
For the energy gap of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 and Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4although there are some nuances in a flim of theoretical results, they all reflect that the band gap of sulfide is wider than that of selenide, as shown in Table 2. The optimized parameters were applied for the deposition of CZTS thin film and films were used for postannealing.
Hereafter the CZTS had aroused the latent commercial interests. CZTS thin film will have cracks after annealing.
A Review on Development Prospect of CZTS Based Thin Film Solar Cells
Quaternary compounds film can be directly synthesized by one-step at room temperature, which eliminates the vulcanizing process so that it greatly reduces the complexity of production process. InKatagiri in Nagaoka University of Technology utilized the electron beam evaporation to fabricate the Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 thin film solar cells with an efficiency of 0.
Although the number of cracks can be reduced by adding polymer adhesive, it will indirectly bring in the carbon impurities, and the gap between the CZTS film and the substrate will increase the resistivity. This paper summerized the development situation of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 thin film solar cells and the manufacturing technologies, as well as problems in the manufacturing process.
International Journal of Photoenergy. Inthey obtained a conversion solsr of 2. It is currently the highest conversion efficiency using the preparation vacuum method. Further, the internal defects and impurities introduced during manufacture also significantly affect the electrical properties of the films. When synthesizing quaternary semiconductor, it is noteworthy how to obtain quaternary semiconductor with specific composition and avoid the generation of binary, ternary impurity phase.
As shown in Figure 4the scope of chemical potential which is in favour of synthesizing quaternary semiconductor phase of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 is very narrow. Finally, the CZTS thin films with a band gap of 1. Filmm, through improving technology with employing ZnS as evaporation source, they obtained the photoelectric conversion efficiency of 2. CZTS films prepared by vacuum evaporation method are simple in principle and better in quality. The ideal cell requires czst-based higher shunt resistance and a lower series resistance.
Survey of development of CZTS-based thin film solar cells – Semantic Scholar
InPamplin had proposed stannite Cu 2 FeSnS 4 quaternary compound semiconductor structures [ 8 ] of ultracrystal pack in Nature. InSalome and Femandes et al.
Due to the high energy density of the laser and the effect of enhanced crystallization, we obtained uniform, single, and dense crystal grains [ 87 ]. SolatTanaka et al. In addition, the dzts-based method of vacuum deposition wastes film materials, and the cost is relatively high. InNagaoka University of Technology obtained a conversion efficiency of 0.
Meanwhile, the crystalline state and the basic characteristics of the CZTS film have not been clearly figured and the relationship between material properties and device performance of CZTS cannot be accurately explained [ 95 ]. CZTS thin films were formed by sequential immersion of the substrate into the beakers containing the cationic precursor solutions of 0.
From the phase diagrams of Figure 4 and the theoretical calculation, it can be seen that ZnS impurity phase is likely to exist in the Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 material of Zn-rich and Cu-poor.
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