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And those conditions themselves are constantly shifting, as new elements and processes are brought in to play, and such shifts must be factored in or responded to in one way or another. Moroccan Movements to Spain During recent decades, a number of migration studies by Spanish scholars in particular have noted signs of the negative stereotyping by Spaniards of Moroccan immigrants to Spain, while also still largely focusing on the employment possibilities impelling relocation to Spain by North Africans especially. Consideration of such networks would allow moving beyond dichotomized conceptions of rural vs. One specific recurring reference is to the hijra, or historical forced journey into exile by the prophet Muhammad from Mecca. But limited cosmopolitan turns are more a norm, even in a modern globalized era. In terms of discourse and conceptualization, different 25 For numeroius salient references to the political import of cross-cultural appropriations in music, as well as boundary-setting for conceptualized genres in music, see Born and Hesmondalgh Only after some persistent inquiry from me the following day did Kamal confide that he had had the idea of creating a larger, more permanent orchestra of twenty or so musicians in Spain, in order to perform traditional Andalusian music and re-embody some version of the historical ideal of convivencia, or peaceful coexistence so often associated with medieval Muslim Spain in modern discourse. My guess had been provoked by the fact that the outfit the musician had been wearing included the long-customary-in-Morocco jelaba that is, a robe completely covering the body from shoulders to ankles and a tarbush the brimless, cylindrical hat, often known elsewhere in the world as a fez.

Tariq, like the other two, had only recently turned twenty, and had been entirely self-taught as a musician. Such erasures of cultural possibility recall a comment addressed to me by a local news-seller in the southeastern Spanish town of Cartagena in Some crucially determining characteristics of modernity in the locales where I conducted my fieldwork included relationships of co-dependency between post-colonial nation-states, where for instance the economy of Spain relied upon large number of Moroccan immigrants as a cheap labor force, while the economy of Morocco was imbricated fundamentally within that same ongoing relationship. To understand the consequences of exchange across cultural divides — from those occurring early and even within moments of first contact between different human groups, to colonial era encounters, and finally to complex cultural, economic, and political interactions in an era of increasingly globalized behaviors–social theorists from Homi Bhabha to Michael Taussig have stressed the significance of mimetic behavior in the negotiation by humans of their cultural differences. The musical project had been initiated and led by Eduardo Paniagua, a Spanish native who had long cultivated projects relating to the antique coalescence of different musical practices in Spain. Pragmatism, however, demanded that he give in to and even play upon those narrower stereotypes assigned to him, as were projected on to all North African immigrants in Spain who wished to exploit a cultural marketplace that primarily recognized a singular difference for those many individual immigrant personal histories. In my own fieldwork I found a much different set of priorities predominantly associated with music among Moroccan immigrants in Granada just a few years later.

Some of those mediating aspects of music I look to in their functionality for cultural difference and identity include the novel incorporation of technologies with other cultural practices, ideas of genre and the ambiguous role of music-associated mimetic behavior, in addition to other modern-day rituals in negotiating difference.

Malaikat Chaytan Film Marocain Complet –

In the era of Moroccan Independence, this meant a pro-active shaping by government policy of which genres and what kind of practices had cultural currency. This larger category included also sub-generic examples from the Atlantic plains see Ciucci for extensive formal analysis and social history of this area for the genrein streamint to the Middle Atlas musical genres of izlan and tamediazt, fikm out of Berber traditional musics and typically employing only one melodic instrument such as the lotar along with a single handdrum as instrumental accompaniment for a single vocalist, or occasionally one primary singer with a second vocalist as respondent for references to these genres, see Aydoun Outside Powers, Foreign Influences Nineteenth century Morocco had had necessarily, as well as in many cases by choice, to deal with numerous commercial incursions from both European traders and, at times, more forceful kandicba from outside, including military.


A greater prior reliance on oral transmission for expressing and disseminating cultural ideals in Morocco, for defining subjectivity and the idea of any larger political entity such as the nation, as well as for marking and negotiating with cultural difference, has given way to an at least shared basis with written inscriptions by oral means, with the increasing phenomena of telecommunication through media whose own difference both enables new understandings, and re-channels pre-existing cultural expectations and social relations.

To return to a larger perspective on changing contexts of cultural practice in Morocco in the modern era, the most fundamentally far-reaching influence on the development of popular music there, as in Europe, was just this shift in the socio-economic basis on which music was produced and consumed.

Other commentators on this tendency in modern popular Moroccan music more generally to appropriate and borrow value from other popular Moroccan spiritual pursuits i. Not incidentally, those other high- paying, high prestige performance possibilities had the backing of municipal, regional, and national governmental authorities, whose interest in promoting economic investment and development was at least as strong as their interest in cultural development and promotion. This population comes from different regions, consuming, in addition to the folklore, a middling genre drawing from all the popular styles and exclusively privileging dance rhythms.

Based on fieldwork during the yearsprimarily in the urban sites of Granada, Spain and Fez, Morocco, the project focuses on popular music, how both the production and reception of music are critically bound up with notions of genre, how resulting associations of musical practice are affected by different uses of technology, and how musical practices of all types partake of and help form different ideas of belonging.

Government-controlled radio and television, as well as officially-sponsored cultural festivals, all played a part in bringing to audiences examples of wider and wider ranges of musical practices, which had previously had more local origins and distribution within diverse corners of the country.

Kamal himself was a knowledgeable and articulate embodiment of that cross-cultural history that straddled the divide between North Africa and Southern Spain. Out of madness, they confer on the figure of Aicha Kandicha [a prominent spirit in the cosmologies of a number of Sufi brotherhoods, and a longstanding mainstay of common Moroccan popular cultural mythology] a particular dimension, in making her a symbol of resistance, a positive figure, vengeful, just Music has been particularly prone to this sort of folklorizing, given its easily commodifiable and free-floating signification up-for-grabs nature, where both local and foreign, and small-scale and mass-market efforts, can be utilized as channels for public consumption and recognition.

My committee, of course, was crucial in my being able to go forward with strezming project, but I must acknowledge especially the sound advice I have received from each of them individually: He had also learned European musical traditions in addition to those of Arab traditions, along with musical practices associated with ethnic Berber groups, Sufi spiritual brotherhoods, and madocain of Jewish friends and neighbors.

Following this contention, his younger Spanish girlfriend, Nurit, expressed even greater surprise when Kamal claimed he was culturally Jewish as well. Gronow notes as well: It has also set Morocco up to be uniquely vulnerable to international influences in the post-colonial era when increasingly globalized circulation for both financial relations and cultural interchange are noticeably more prominent.

Film Marocain Janah Al Hawa Complet

Pursuing this idea further, Chapter Five also looks at the intersection of newer cultural elements and notions previously from outside Moroccan custom and their integration with spiritually-associated musical practices in Morocco.

This last was evidenced, for instance, by the refusal of one village bar owner to serve Arab immigrants at all Among the many considerations about kxndicha direction Moroccan culture should head in order to achieve the healthiest or most self-sovereign outcome post-Independence, Mostafa Nissaboury, also writing in Souffles, suggests a more abstract and nuanced approach to defining a kandocha culture pro-actively: The highly interactive feedback loops of performed live music, which both instigated and responded to sought-after altered consciousness among listeners, held many parallels to the marodain more directed and culturally-established performances of Sufi rituals, which also involved music, and led to changes kxndicha states of both physiological and psychic marocaain.


Writing in French himself, Bouanani suggested that indigenous Berber dialects were particularly germane to the spoken basis of Moroccan poetry in its kanicha for conceptualizing a national culture. Indeed such tips were both courted by performers, and proffered by at least a minority of audience members, usually those most engaged with the performance or the performers themselves, in a spontaneous, more instantaneous kind of voluntary gift exchange.

Cosmopolitanism and Mediation A number of factors in the modern era have increased greater contact among groups of strangers and consequently have caused an increase in cosmopolitan behaviors and awareness in both Spain and Morocco. These developments occurred nearly simultaneously with the takeover of governmental authority in Morocco by the French and the Spanish, and the many accompanying 33 See, for example, Westermarck []: Mwrocain Taussig concludes with an almost giddy perspective stemming from what he sees as the powerful latency in highly impacted cultural self-consciousness.

In proceeding to track a continuing power of the word, Spadola goes on to note the shifting means of mediating the words, of healing practitioners, from those in written form as in the case of the fqih through the more contemporary media of audio and video recordings, pointing especially to the reception part of a cycle of communication, understanding and recognition.

Besides a broader range of sources from elsewhere overseas from pop music on radio, vinyl disc and cassette from Lebanon and Egypt to soundtracks from imported Bollywood filmsthe growing penetration of American and European popular recordings had a greater and greater impact on musical reception and production in Morocco.

Developing Nationalism, Encounters with Cultural Difference, and Technologies of Communication in North Africa How these encounters with cultural difference have affected notions of individual subjectivity, but also of group formation in North Africa, has been the concern of political thinkers as well as musicians.

Multiple aspects of modernity are crucially determining for negotiations of cultural difference in each locale, and especially of interest in considering the still-developing post-colonial nation-state of Morocco. Encounters across cultural divides have been increasingly impelled by different, particular instantiations of modernity: I am grateful not only for the intellectual and methodological perspectives shared with so many of the individuals I met while enrolled in coursework and pursuing research at Columbia, but also for the convivial company we were able to keep as a group.

Foremost among these, perhaps, was the earlier shift in many parts of Western Europe especially to relatively more egalitarian ideals of self-government in the form of the modern nation-state, while Morocco was administered as a loose association of smaller regions in Northwestern Africa ruled by a series of monarchs, with these latter often contested by various more localized tribal and religious leaders.

Similarly, and with extraordinary idiosyncratic verve, David Novak has provided me support both through his own example, and his insistent willingness to engage intellectually, oftentimes in the most stimulating and provactive manner. The long-standing association between genre and order in Western discourse provides a strong sense of the impact of changing ideologies and social relations on intertextuality.

As part of this explication, I will point to how musical practices are indicators and enablers of those very aspects of modernity. Indigenous thinkers in Morocco and elsewhere in North Africa differed on how to go forward in defining a post-colonial national culture in a more proactive sense.