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More info shown for each image when viewed in detail. The figure of Bourguiba A legacy of reforms An authoritarian tendency A return to the frontline The return of Bourguiba? All of these modes can be mobilized as part of the teaching of history, including “through books, art, theatre plays,” attests one teacher in Sousse: Otherwise the related wikipedia article. It s necessary that the period of to is reserved for Bourguiba in our academic programmes. The three books give the names and photos of other members and activists of the national movement especially Mahmoud Matri, Bahri Guiga Tahar Sfar, Mohamed Bourguiba, or Ali Balhaouan , but without too many details about their background or their contribution. He was assassinated by the French intelligence services.

Memory appeals to the subjectivity of a lived experience, of an individual, family, group or community. We must prepare the student for productivity, management, and for a new way of living. Our interviews show that teachers are constantly making efforts to distinguish between what they believe, what they think, and what they teach from textbook supplied by the State. The student must not remain stuck to the book but should develop his own culture: Ceres, Tunis, While some textbooks do mention trade union leader and national hero Farhat Hached, they tend to overlook the major role of the UGTT in the national struggle for independence. I experienced the Congress of Monastir, 36 after which there were only mistakes. Memorialization processes What memorialisation tools to use? It would be interesting to study the history of Tunisia before that of the rest of the world.

The three books give the names and photos of other members and activists of the national movement especially Mahmoud Matri, Bahri Guiga Tahar Sfar, Mohamed Bourguiba, or Ali Balhaouanbut without too many details about their background or their contribution.

The central power in Tunis was afraid of these events, it is still not possible until after the revolution to write books 77 For the relationship between the trade unions and Bourguiba, see Hadded, S.

A history teacher in Gafsa says: Stade du 7 Novembre de Gafsa, is a stadium in Gafsa, Tunisia. Disappointments generated during the expeditious funeral of Bourguiba have, according to historian Kmar Bendana, fuelled the flame of memory in Tunisians, and started to create the myth of Bourguiba. In Gafsa, a history teacher thinks that “you have to be neutral in the treatment of collective memory; the woman who transported food to the fighters in the mountains must have her rights.

It is socially determined, and it influences in large part the commitment of individuals, groups and cultures to their ways of life or their ideals. A history teacher in Gafsa confirms: In Sousse also, teachers asked to see tjnisie own regional history acknowledged, including “that of activists of the national movement from the Sahel MC18or “events in Sousse during the 95 See Sfar, T.


It is a leader who led the country to independence.

Teachers are of course subject to the partiality of tnuisie own subjective memory, and their vision of the past will undoubtedly be shaped by their identities and their own experiences. MC16 In this context even the vocabulary of Bourguiba, his quotations and references are more and more current in the public space including, paradoxically, among his fiercest opponents.

Very few work 18 hours, this is the maximum What Memory to Preserve? Their production quality is mediocre, the book comes apart after two weeks. We are not talking about Taher Hadad or the others, historiography exists in the book but it s very short, which causes a fundamental imbalance Indeed, the past of a state is generally regarded by governments as an important resource for building values, and it is characteristic of authoritarian governments to control the official way the past is told and presented.

A legacy of reforms Politically, Bourguiba was the instigator of the abolition of the monarchy of the Beys, and the establishment of a republican regime after the country s independence. This is also what distinguishes history from memory: Vigilance is thus required.

A history teacher in Sousse thinks it necessary to revive the direct testimonies of survivors to integrate their memory in the corpus of history: In Gafsa, a civic education teacher recognizes the benefits of Bourguiba: There are several periods that should be taught objectively.

The study of the personality Bourguiba is important because he is a leader and a great figure of the 20 th century, a great speaker.

Mosbah Jarbou — Wikipédia

The man did so much for the country but Bourguiba not only betrayed Salah Ben Tinisie, he was also not fair to the families and relatives of the Beys.

We must raise awareness of the importance of respecting the public good. He is criticized for having suppressed the religious institution of Zaytouna and religious instruction, but also for the abolition of polygamy, the legalization of adoption, divorce, and even abortion.

Vie d un homme ou naissance d une nation? There are personal photo albums that are in the hands of several people, and that should be preserved through local associations. February 22, Length: There is a real problem because we seek to develop thinking, but with these ideological limits we will not create a collective memory and identity, because one needs a memorial to do that.


This comeback is strongly symbolized by the physical return of his statue to the Avenue bearing his name in the centre of Tunis, on 1 st Juneafter being taken down by Ben Ali in The fact that so many avenues and squares in Tunisia carry the name of Bourguiba is also a powerful symbol of his pre-eminence in the memorial field, and the persisting inability to really question his legacy. I am for the prosecution and the judgement of people who have committed violations.

Tunisif in an ancient Roman site at Snad. Recommendations concerning the process of memory Teachers interviewed in Sousse utnisie Gafsa saw a very important role for the conservation of memory in general.

Resistance was not limited to Tunisie – Changeur d’argent vers It allows a better understanding: List of persons interviewed Appendix 3. MC24 Since the s, there has been a frenzy of memorial activity, with a proliferation of phenomena memorializing the past, 24 which appear increasingly related to the recognition of the victims and national reconciliation.

Students take part using their own means. As a consequence, there is still no consensual narrative on his policies or his private life. Thaalbi and several other political figures are ignored. MC05 She adds, highlighting the difficulties of achieving such objectivity in teaching: The textbook is the realization of a state policy that puts the student in his African and Arab environment.

When I speak of the history of Tunisia at the undergraduate level, including Salah Ben Youssef and his conflict with Bourguiba, students are always convinced that Bourguiba is the authoritarian while Ben Youssef was the victim. All in all, Bourguiba appears to be almost alone in the struggle for independence in the Neo-Destour. History will educate new generations The movement of fellagas, which lasted from to and had members, is quite impressive, however, it is not taught!

A history teacher in Gafsa recognises that “the history of associations with the creation of the Khaldounia 94 and the Islamic Union of Women headed by Bechira Ben Mrad is ignored by students. Regional and local museums However, several historical elements outlined in current museums should be updated according to history teachers. There are many eras that should be taught objectively.

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