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This provides a wealth of new obscene euphemisms to the literary lexicon. Salinas wrote only twenty-three sonnets. The language they use is often devastatingly concrete. The mother comes across as a proto-Celestina as she instructs her daughter to apply rouge to her unfashionably dark skin and to push up her breasts. The former is serious if not sincere in attitude; the latter mocks that poetic posture. He often uses direct discourse to make his sonnets more immediate and dramatic, and to enliven short dialogues as in “—Becchina mia! A good sonnet had to be concise and totally free of extraneous words or elements. And, finally, a personal friendship linked him to Italy’s most vitriolic pen.

His treatise on pedagogical psychology, entitled Examen de ingenios para las ciencias, explains commonly held humoral theory in detail. Sonnets, romances, and letrillas all served as vehicles for the classical satiric tradition that would culminate in the work of Quevedo in the seventeenth century. This is seen in another sonnet which is a typical “gato por liebre” tale of a swindling poulterer who sold the poet:. The term ritornello was soon abandoned and replaced by “coda,” the term still used today. Eso es lo malo de hablar de grupos como estos As we know, Don Quixote’s lunacy stemmed from the excessive reading of romances of chivalry. And in spite of his condemnation, Cueva himself composed at least one soneto con estrambote. As the person responsible for broadcasting official proclamations in the streets, he had ample opportunity to mingle with the citizenry and ascertain public opinion on daily news.

After dressing comery adorning the girl, she proudly announces her triumph: Nevertheless, as he says in the last verse, he knows all protest is fruitless and ewcuchar hoards of poetasters will ultimately prevail. After all, Pilletto was a fine and courteous young man who had simply acted as an “amorevole vicino. Such self-mockery is a significant feature of burlesque verse. In a word, he is addressing the problem of perspectivismo.

In the first verse of the dedication, the “brigata nobile e cortese” is transformed into “la brigata avara senza arnesi” miserly good-for-nothings. Therefore, he was in intimate contact with a major part of Italy’s cultural aristocracy. And perhaps this is precisely the ultimate “meaning” of this nonsense rhyme—that given wit, anything can be made poetic. In poems comdey as sonnets XII and XIII, however, the comicity lies in their cleverness, in their way of communicating a perfectly understandable message couched in ingenious terms.


This is in direct and, of course, deliberate contrast to the refined and sweet language used immaculare their serious colleagues engaged in the newly discovered dolce stile.

Cervantes and the Burlesque Sonnet

In them he makes poetry out of the highly popular Roman pasquinade. This institution was typical of the festive social and literary organizations that flourished in Italy in the sixteenth century.

After Jonson, escucar England ommaculate eccentricity of behavior was referred to as a humor. The quatrains are divided into four sets of two verses each, and each two-verse set explains the mutual sides of one statement.

He is the plaintive and passionate lover; she, the haughty donna. Such irony and ambiguity is present in the most accomplished burlesque verse and is an important differentiating factor between burlesque and invectious satire.

The comicality of the mother’s paradoxical advice to behave honestly after the litany of instructions on how to cover her imperfections could not be more patent. At times a tendency toward moralizing becomes apparent and the tavern, women, and dice are replaced by the rewards of family life.

When cultural and linguistic primacy passed to Tuscany in foools second half of the same century, Guittone d’Arezzo, Guido Guinizelli, and Guido Cavalcanti embraced the sonnet. He also developed a close relationship with Berni’s old archenemy, Pietro Aretino. The most felicitous literary symbol for this idea is, of course, Sancho Panza’s ingenious baciyelmo.

A good sonnet is a circular, closed structure with no superfluous elements. Mendoza’s burlesque cancionero is relatively extensive trzgic merits examination as the first adaptation of the genre to the Castilian language. Nevertheless, in this case the critic’s negative personal reaction against the subject matter does not make him reject tragc verses without comment, and after his initial disclaimer he adds: Sixteenth-century Italy saw a continued growth in the more learned poetic forms such as sonnets, canzoni, and escuhcar.


That city still breathed the atmosphere charged with art and escucchar literature, a large part of which was popular and burlesque, that had been established by Lorenzo the Magnificent. Rather than approving the harsh castigation of the final tercets, Pistoia would probably stand back with a little nod of the head and a wink before this small vicissitude of life.

Petty rivalries and political setbacks blossom into blasphemous invective and satirical portraits done in a trivial and insulting spirit. The subtle irony and humor that characterize the sonnet, combined with the ruffianesque subject matter, are absent from Mendoza’s poetry.

More by Immaculate Fools

Both sonnet XII Appendix 23 and sonnet XIII Appendix 24 [10] belong to the type of burlesque sonnet designated here as “facetious narrative”; although in verse, they are very similar to the short, witty, often ribald, anecdotal stories known as “facetiae. Several “serious” poets in the years following Mendoza would write the occasional burlesque sonnet. An expanding rather than crescendo rhythm is normally felt.

Burchiello seems to mock himself for somehow allowing himself to get into such a situation. Although a man of the cloth, one of his best known ballads is the highly irreverent “En Fuenmayor, esa villa.

Escuchar tragic comedy immaculate fools torrent

These, of course, contrast sharply and satirically with the luxurious creature comforts enjoyed by the Tuscan aristocracy depicted in Folgore’s sonnet.

His treatise on pedagogical psychology, entitled Examen de ingenios para las ciencias, explains commonly held humoral theory in detail.

The parts of the body are described graphically, as are the bodily functions normally omitted from polite conversation and poetry.

If he did try his hand at serious verse, he found it was not really him. In the midsixteenth century, the burlesque sonnet traveled to Spain, where it soon adapted to its new environment and language.