For example, where the norms of Spanish orthography see 3. In the case of Spanish, whose speakers span a greater part of the world than any other language but English, the official language of twenty-one countries, a minority language of considerable and rapidly increasing presence in the US, and third working language in the United Nations, as Lipski There is also a geographical dimension to the spread of the variant -ao. Therefore, we shall provide translations or glosses of some the Spanish used in the text principally where an understanding of context is crucial to an understanding of the language or where important lexis is unlikely to be included in standard dictionaries. For example, coche Pen. As Lipski 2 notes, while the prestige norm is frequently based on the speech of the educated inhabitants of the capital, in larger, more complex societies where The standardization of Spanish 15 there is greater fragmentation, the norm may be located elsewhere.
This phenomenon, found elsewhere in Andalusia, is called seceo or ceseo Narbona et al. Furthermore, foreign- The extent and status of Spanish in the world 11 language production ranging from influential academic writing through computer software to world literature is often rapidly translated into Spanish and there is a thriving industry of film subtitling and dubbing into Spanish. This evidently causes sharp contrasts between their speech and that, for example, of their interviewees or those who participate in phone-in shows. Indeed, the vast majority of speakers of Spanish share a system which excludes both of these variants. It is not, however, the aim of this chapter, or of this book, to replicate unnecessarily information easily available in dictionaries, grammars and histories of the language and which is amply covered elsewhere. We shall also examine the suprasegmental features of stress and intonation. Venganza bajo cero , excelente pel Director:
Although, according to the guide, these should be adapted to Spanish syntax, for example, los estafilococos resistentes a la meticilina, the authors are realistic about the likely success of this strategy and concede that if they are used they should not be hyphenated, for example, insulinodependiente as is the case in Spanish in general, e. However, with regional broadcasting, the question soon arose of how to express spoken norms for those channels which chose not to adopt the prestige norm of Castile.
Similarly, in Latin America, as Lipski notes The writing system of Spanish, therefore, can be seen to be highly phonemic, especially so with regard to standard Castilian, and also extremely standardized across all varieties. No te pierdas esta interesante segunda tem Director: There has been a limited amount of work on lexis, principally on terms imported from French, English or the indigenous languages of Latin America.
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Second, the presence of ceceo leads to a complex linguistic situation where in the same city there may be speakers who make a distinction, those who are seseante use seseothose who are ceceante use ceceo and those who are in the process of transition between one system and another. For example, the use of the verb coger is considered taboo in a number of countries, Mexico, for example, where its use is reserved for acts of fornication.
Indeed, the Spanish spoken in southern Spain and the Canaries has more in common with the majority of Latin American varieties of the language than it has with that of the north of Spain. It was the work of one woman, published for the first time inthe Diccionario de uso del espanol, more commonly known by the name of its author, the Maria Moliner, which provided a far more thorough description of the Spanish language despite its obvious idiosyncracies, for example, the decision to group references by families rather than strictly alphabetically.
Canal Sur Television, based in Seville and serving all eight provinces of the autonomous community of Andalusia first brought out its own style guide in in which it seeks to allay feelings of linguistic insecurity which might be felt by its broadcasters.
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It never became a trade language and the Church and the administration preferred to use indigenous languages in pursuit of their goals. In the chapters which make up this part of the book we shall look at the phonetics and phonology, the orthography, the lexis and the morphosyntax of Spanish, not to describe in detail each of the principal standards at this level of analysis, these are amply described in other works but rather to look at the main axes of variation in the standard, which may or may not coincide with national boundaries, and also to examine salient variants which may in time affect the standard code promoting language change as well as other variants which, being stigmatized, are unlikely to enter the standard code.
Part I Spanish as a world language 1 The sries and status of Spanish in the world 1.
The most recent orthographic reform dates back to the publication, inof the Nuevas normas de prosodia y ortografia which were made prescriptive in Another function of intonation is that of conveying the attitude of the speaker, for example, surprise, ironic disbelief, polite attentiveness, 54 Spanish: For example, in the field comaronas sports lexis, the creation antidoping drug testing should be avoided in favour of antidopaje or control de The standardization of Spanish 23 estimulatites; por contra from the French par contre should be replaced by por el contrario or en cambio.
Leading professions ranging seies the media to medicine espouse the need to standardize practice within their field. Consequently, it is instructive to sketch a broad overview of attitudes towards different varieties of Spanish. All comavronas pronunciations, which occur to a greater or lesser extent in yohkis parts of the Spanish-speaking world, are common in parts of Andalusia and are amongst the very few features of Andalusian dialects proscribed by the regional television service. It is not, however, the aim of this chapter, or of this book, to replicate unnecessarily information easily available in dictionaries, grammars and histories of the language and which is amply covered elsewhere.
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We shall also look at its status in the world as evidenced, for example, by its presence in major international organizations, as a second language on the curriculum of non-Spanish-speaking countries and its impact in the audiovisual media. While there is a large measure of agreement between the style guides on issues such as the use of the conditional, the over- and misuse of the gerund, and Anglicisms and Gallicisms to be avoided, it is interesting to see how they seek to differentiate themselves from each other in certain crucial areas.
The style guide, based on the analysis of a corpus of representative documents produced by the Public Administration, constitutes a compendium of what is considered to be good practice. High Maintenance Temporada 3. There is a proportionately greater focus on Peninsular Spanish principally due to the fact xii Preface that large areas of the Spanish-speaking world remain seriously under-researched and also to the geographic location seriez the ocmadronas.
The lexical section provides plain language alternatives for what yonlis considers cultismos administrates. Therefore, we shall provide translations or glosses of some the Spanish used in the text principally where an understanding comaadronas context is crucial to an understanding of the language or where important lexis is unlikely to be included in standard dictionaries. Terms referring to the professional status of women Traditionally, terms used to refer to high-status professional posts were masculine, essentially because their incumbents were male.
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Patrulla Condenada Temporada 1. Despite this, what is interesting is the extent to which the same conventions of spelling are adhered to throughout the Spanish-speaking world. Rodriguez Magda, Las Provincias, 8.
In words which end yonkkis a consonant other than n and s stress tends to fall on the last syllable. For although Spanish is arguably one of the major languages where spelling most closely reflects pronunciation, there are constant demands for this correspondence between orthography and pronunciation to be made even closer.
Indeed, subsequent 28 Spanish as a serles language editions of a style guide can serve to show which battles are being lost and where there has been relative victory.
In Normas basicas para los servicios informativos EFE had provided journalists with a number of brief rules-of-thumb regarding language usage: The linguistic engineering proposed by the guide was denounced by some: Este episodio se titula “Episodio 2” Director: What are the conventions governing different genres of writing and speaking, for example newspaper headlines or political speeches, in different parts of the Spanish-speaking world?
The edition repeats this injunction but warns against what it sees an an over-extension of these principles, i. No te pierdas esta interesante quinta temp Director: Other major dailies such as ABC first edition of its style guide,El Mundo first style guide,regional newspapers, the Basque El Correo espanol and El pueblo vasco and the Catalan La Vanguardia first style guide, and sports papers such as El Mundo Deportivo have produced style guides which are periodically updated.
The effect of this was to end more than twenty years of bilingual education for immigrant children. The city of Granada, Figure 3.
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